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  2. Medical Home Portal - Autism Spectrum Disorder
  3. Advances in Autism : 12222 - Issue 4

Sensory atypicalities are a common feature of autism spectrum disorder ASD. To date, the relationship between sensory atypicalities in dyads of children with ASD and their parents has not been investigated. Exploring these relationships can contribute to an understanding of how phenotypic profiles may be inherited, and the extent to which familial factors might contribute towards children's sensory profiles and constitute an aspect of the broader autism phenotype BAP.

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Parents of 44 children with ASD and 30 typically developing TD children, aged between 3 and 14 years, participated. Information about children's sensory experiences was collected through parent report using the Sensory Profile questionnaire. Similar levels of agreement were obtained within ASD and TD parent-child dyads on a number of sensory atypicalities; nevertheless significant correlations were found between parents and children in ASD families but not TD dyads for sensation avoiding and auditory, visual, and vestibular sensory processing.

The findings suggest that there are similarities in sensory processing profiles between parents and their children in both ASD and TD dyads. Familial sensory processing factors are likely to contribute towards the BAP. Further work is needed to explore genetic and environmental influences on the developmental pathways of the sensory atypicalities in ASD. Autism Res , Ecological aspects of pain in sensory modulation disorder. Sensory Modulation Disorder SMD interferes with the daily life participation of otherwise healthy individuals and is characterized by over-, under- or seeking responsiveness to naturally occurring sensory stimuli.

Previous laboratory findings indicate pain hyper-sensitivity in SMD individuals suggesting CNS alteration in pain processing and modulation. However, laboratory studies lack ecological validity, and warrant clinical completion in order to elicit a sound understanding of the phenomenon studied. Thus, this study explored the association between sensory modulation and pain in a daily life context in a general population sample.

Daily life context of pain and sensations were measured in adults aged years; Thirty two individuals This is a novel investigation bringing together two clinical phenomena for the first time in this neuro-developmental disorder. Esophageal motor and sensory disorders : presentation, evaluation, and treatment. Esophageal motor and sensory disorders are relatively rare conditions in the general population and afflicted patients are often initially misdiagnosed as having gastroesophageal reflux disease.

Tests for these disorders have imperfect gold standards and are adjuncts to sound diagnostic reasoning.

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Treatments are palliative and have not been rigorously evaluated for some disorders. Symptoms and complications from disease progression and relapse are common, so that patients need continued follow-up. Sensory processing differences have long been associated with autism spectrum disorder ASD , and they have recently been added to the diagnostic criteria for the disorder.

The focus on sensory processing in ASD research has increased substantially in the last decade. This research has been approached from two different perspectives: the first focuses on characterizing the symptoms that manifest in response to real world sensory stimulation, and the second focuses on the neural pathways and mechanisms underlying sensory processing. The purpose of this paper is to integrate the empirical literature on sensory processing in ASD from the last decade, including both studies characterizing sensory symptoms and those that investigate neural response to sensory stimuli.

We begin with a discussion of definitions to clarify some of the inconsistencies in terminology that currently exist in the field.

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Medical Home Portal - Autism Spectrum Disorder

Next, the sensory symptoms literature is reviewed with a particular focus on developmental considerations and the relationship of sensory symptoms to other core features of the disorder. Then, the neuroscience literature is reviewed with a focus on methodological approaches and specific sensory modalities. Currently, these sensory symptoms and neuroscience perspectives are largely developing independently from each other leading to multiple, but separate, theories and methods, thus creating a multidisciplinary approach to sensory processing in ASD. In order to progress our understanding of sensory processing in ASD, it is now critical to integrate these two research perspectives and move toward an interdisciplinary approach.

This will inevitably aid in a better understanding of the underlying biological basis of these symptoms and help realize the translational value through its application to early identification and treatment. The review ends with specific recommendations for future research to help bridge these two research perspectives in order to advance our understanding. The classical view of sensory processing involves independent processing in sensory cortices and multisensory integration in associative areas. This hierarchical structure has been challenged by evidence of multisensory responses in sensory areas, and dynamic weighting of sensory inputs in associative areas, thus far reported independently.

Here, we used a visual-to-auditory sensory substitution algorithm SSA to manipulate the information conveyed by sensory inputs while keeping the stimuli intact. During scan sessions before and after SSA learning, subjects were presented with visual images and auditory soundscapes. The findings reveal 2 dynamic processes. First, crossmodal attenuation of sensory cortices changed direction after SSA learning from visual attenuations of the auditory cortex to auditory attenuations of the visual cortex.

Advances in Autism : 12222 - Issue 4

Secondly, associative areas changed their sensory response profile from strongest response for visual to that for auditory. The interaction between these phenomena may play an important role in multisensory processing. Consistent features were also found in the sensory dominance in sensory areas and audiovisual convergence in associative area Middle Temporal Gyrus.

These 2 factors allow for both stability and a fast, dynamic tuning of the system when required. Published by Oxford University Press. Atypical responses to sensory stimuli are a new criterion in DSM-5 for the diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder ASD but are also reported in other developmental disorders.

Using the Short Sensory profile SSP and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised we compared atypical sensory behaviour hyper- or hypo-reactivity to sensory input or unusual….

Deconinck, Frederik J. This study examined and compared the control of posture during bilateral stance in ten boys with Developmental Coordination Disorder DCD of years old and ten matched typically developing boys in four sensory conditions with or without vision, on a firm or complaint surface. In all conditions mean postural sway velocity was larger for the…. As mammals develop, they encounter increasing social complexity in the surrounding world. In order to survive, mammals must show appropriate behaviors toward their mates, offspring, and same-sex conspecifics.

Although the behavioral effects of the neuropeptide arginine vasopressin AVP have been studied in a variety of social contexts, the effects of this neuropeptide on multimodal sensory processing have received less attention. AVP is widely distributed through sensory regions of the brain and has been demonstrated to modulate olfactory, auditory, gustatory, and visual processing. Here, we review the evidence linking AVP to the processing of social stimuli in sensory regions of the brain and explore how sensory processing can shape behavioral responses to these stimuli.

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In addition, we address the interplay between hormonal and neural AVP in regulating sensory processing of social cues. Because AVP pathways show plasticity during development, early life experiences may shape life-long processing of sensory information. Furthermore, disorders of social behavior such as autism and schizophrenia that have been linked with AVP also have been linked with dysfunctions in sensory processing. Mazurek, Micah O. Children with autism spectrum disorders ASD experience high rates of anxiety, sensory processing problems, and gastrointestinal GI problems; however, the associations among these symptoms in children with ASD have not been previously examined.

The current study examined bivariate and multivariate relations among anxiety, sensory…. Parallel processing of afferent olfactory sensory information. The enhanced spiking that we observed in response to brief afferent input provides a mechanism for amplifying sensory information and contrasts with the transient response in external tufted cells. These parallel input paths may have discrete functions in processing olfactory sensory input. The synaptic pharmacology underlying sensory processing in the superior colliculus.


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The superior colliculus SC is one of the most ancient regions of the vertebrate central sensory system. In this hub afferents from several sensory pathways converge, and an extensive range of neural circuits enable primary sensory processing , multi- sensory integration and the generation of motor commands for orientation behaviours. Neurones in the superficial layers integrate visual information from the retina, cortex and other sources, while the deep layers draw together data from many cortical and sub-cortical sensory areas, including the superficial layers, to generate motor commands.

Functional studies in anaesthetized subjects and in slice preparations have used pharmacological tools to probe some of the SC's interacting circuits. The studies reviewed here reveal important roles for ionotropic glutamate receptors in the mediation of sensory inputs to the SC and in transmission between the superficial and deep layers. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors appear to have special responsibility for the temporal matching of retinal and cortical activity in the superficial layers and for the integration of multiple sensory data-streams in the deep layers. These sensory and motor-command activities of SC neurones are modulated by levels of arousal through extrinsic connections containing GABA, serotonin and other transmitters.

It is possible to naturally stimulate many of the SC's sensory and non- sensory inputs either independently or simultaneously and this brain area is an ideal location in which to study: a interactions between inputs from the same sensory system; b the integration of inputs from several sensory systems; and c the influence of non- sensory systems on. Sensory experiences of children with autism spectrum disorder : In their own words.

First-person perspectives of children with autism spectrum disorder ASD are rarely included in research, yet their voices may help more clearly illuminate their needs. This article addresses two study aims: determining the feasibility of interviewing children with ASD and exploring how they share information about their sensory experiences during the qualitative interview process.

With the described methods, children as young as four and across a broad range of autism severity scores successfully participated in the interviews. The manner with which children shared information about their sensory experiences included themes of normalizing, storytelling, and describing responses. The interviews also revealed the importance of context and the multisensory nature of children's experiences. These findings contribute strategies for understanding the sensory experiences of children with ASD with implications for practice and future research.